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J Ultrastruct Res 32:526–544 Latta H, Johnston WH, Stanley TM (1975) Sialoglycoproteins and filtration barriers in the glomerular capillary wall. J Ultrastruct Res 51:354–376 References 35 Liu W, Morimoto T, Kondo Y, Iinuma K, Uchida S, Imai M (2001) “Avian-type” renal medullary tubule organization causes immaturity of urine-concentrating ability in neonates. Kidney Int 60:680–693 Logan AG, Moriarty RJ, Morris R, Rankin JC (1980) The anatomy and blood system of the kidney in the river lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis.

2012). These details have yet to be studied in representatives of other vertebrate classes. The basement membrane, the middle component of the filtration barrier, has generally been shown in electron micrographs to consist of a central electron-dense layer, the lamina densa, with two much thinner electron-lucent layers on either side of it, the lamina rara interna and the lamina rara externa (Fig. 12) (Nielsen et al. 2012). Although the lamina densa clearly exists and appears to reflect a true basement membrane, a number of studies on mammals have indicated that the two laminae rarae are artifacts of fixation and that the three-layer structure of the basement membrane does not exist (Chan et al.

Because the ultrafiltration coefficient is the product of the capillary area available for filtration and the capillary hydraulic conductivity, the difference between the values for amphibians and mammals may result primarily from an apparently greater area available for filtration in amphibian than in mammalian glomeruli (Renkin and Gilmore 1973) rather than from a difference in hydraulic conductivities. Unfortunately, as noted above, there are no really accurate measurements of the glomerular capillary area available for filtration, much less the area actually used, in any species.

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Deformity: An Essay by William Hay

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