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13) can be also used for confined concrete if the concrete-confined peak stress fcc and strain Ecu are known or assumed and substituted for fco′ and εu, respectively. Confined Concrete — Mander’s Model Analytical models describing the stress–strain relationship for confined concrete depend on the confining transverse reinforcement type (such as hoops, spiral, or ties) and shape (such as circular, square, or rectangular). Some of those analytical models are more general than others in their applicability to various confinement types and shapes.

9. , Kratzig, W. , Phenomena and evaluation of dynamic structural responses, in Dynamics of Civil Engineering Structures, W. B. -J. A. Balkema, Rotterdams, 1996. 10. , Dynamics of Structures, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995. 11. , Seismic Design of Building Structures: A Professional’s Introduction to Earthquake Forces and Design Details, Professional Publications, Belmont, CA, 1998. 12. Caltrans, Bridge Design Specifications, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA, 1991.

A nonlinear analysis is complex and involves many simplifying assumptions. Engineers must be familiar with those complexities and assumptions to design bridges that are safe and economical. Many factors contribute to the nonlinear behavior of a bridge. These include factors such as material inelasticity, geometric or second-order effects, nonlinear soil–foundation–structure interaction, gap opening and closing at hinges and abutment locations, time-dependent effects due to concrete creep and shrinkage, etc.

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CRC Press - The Bridge Engineering Handbook chaps 35-67

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