By Elena Phipps
From antiquity to the current day, colour has been embedded with cultural which means. linked to blood, hearth, fertility, and lifestyles strength, the colour purple has consistently been tremendous tough to accomplish and therefore hugely prized. This ebook discusses the starting place of the purple colorant derived from the insect cochineal, its early use in Precolumbian ritual textiles from Mexico and Peru, and the unfold of the yankee dyestuff via cultural interchange following the Spanish discovery and conquest of the recent global within the sixteenth century. Drawing on examples from the collections of the Metropolitan Museum, it records using this red-colored treasure in numerous media and in the course of the global.
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Additional info for Cochineal Red: The Art History of a Color (Metropolitan Museum of Art)
Therefore, one cannot recouple the ClebschGordan coefficients to a 9j symbol, and simplify Eq. (1-155) to the form of Eq. (1-125). The weakest point of the multicenter expansions based on the distributed multipole moments and polarizabilities is the definition of regions assigned to atoms. Indeed, the region of space associated with an atom (site) a is not uniquely defined. The most natural definition comes from the Bader’s atoms in molecules theory 196 . In this approach the atomic basins Va are defined in such a way that the dividing surfaces between two atomic basins in a single molecule are the zero-flux surfaces, determined from the following condition 196 , A r ·n r = 0 (1-158) where n r is the vector normal to the surface.
33 Dispersion Energy 2 The second-order dispersion energy Edisp is defined as the difference between the 2 2 2 second-order polarization and induction energies, Edisp = Epol − Eind . One can also use the following direct definition 2 Edisp = − 0 ˆ AB V VR (1-91) 0 ˆ AB is that part of R ˆ 0 , cf. Eq. (1-24), which involves only where the operator R excited states on both monomers A and B. By its very definition the dispersion interaction represents a pure intermolecular correlation effect. It may be viewed as the stabilizing energetic effect of the correlations of instantaneous multipole moments of the monomers.
1-87) rewritten as follows, tot B 2 Eind = aa ∈A bb ∈B Va + tot A r1 tot A Va Vb Vb r4 B r3 r4 0 r13 r24 r3 tot B r 4 A r 1 r2 0 r13 r24 dr1 dr2 dr3 dr4 (1-150) −1 −1 Inserting the multipole expansions of the operators r13 and r24 with respect to the pairs of sites a b and a b , respectively, and defining the distributed polarizability tensor, KX lX lX LX xx = Vx Vx X r r mlX r ⊗ mlX r LX drdr KX (1-151) one gets the following expression for the multicenter expansion of the induction energy in terms of the distributed multipole moments and polarizabilities: 48 Robert Moszynski C 2 Eind ∼ − a a ∈A b b ∈B lA lA =1 lB lB =0 C + ×A a A ind−B l +lB +1 RabA lA lA =0 lB lB =1 a A b B b B ind−A aa bb l +l +1 l +l +1 RabA B RaAb B aa bb l +lB +1 RaAb (1-152) Rab Ra b where C ind−A KA lA lA LA aa bb = aa 0 QlB b ⊗ QlB b LB KB (1-153) K Note that the formula for lXX l LX xx 0 , Eq.
Cochineal Red: The Art History of a Color (Metropolitan Museum of Art) by Elena Phipps