By William R. Whidden, P.E.
This guide presents applicable analytical ideas to handle the foundations of buried metal pipe layout and makes an attempt to right misuse of the 1958 converted Iowa formulation. the most up-tp-date paintings of Dr. Reynold okay. Watkins and others is gifted during this booklet to strengthen exterior loading layout suggestions. The objective of Buried versatile metal Pipe is to supply sound details at the structural layout and research of buried metal pipe—for water and wastewater—consistent with the most recent pipe/soil layout thoughts of the undefined. at the side of the exterior layout of the pipe/soil interplay, the handbook addresses inner strain layout, vacuum and exterior fluid strain research, and plenty of different nonstandard stipulations pipe designers will most probably stumble upon.
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Additional info for Buried Flexible Steel Pipe: Design and Structural Analysis
Ring stiffness is deﬁned as EI/r3 per unit length of pipe; the dimensions of ring stiffness are force per unit area, commonly psi. Because I = t3/12 per inch length of pipe, EI/r3 = 2E/3(D/t)3. For steel, Es = 30 × 106 psi and t = ts; therefore, ring stiffness is Figure 3-2. Deﬂection and Stiffness. PIPE MECHANICS EI ( 20 × 106 ) = r3 ( D t s )3 27 (3-2) Clearly, ring ﬂexibility (D/t) is an inverse measure of ring stiffness. 48E/(D/t)3. 5 RING COMPRESSION If the pipe ring is held in circular shape when external pressure is applied, stress in the pipe wall is ring compression stress, s = P(DO)/2ts (Fig.
Steel is ductile and can perform in the ductile range. However, designers consider yield stress, σY, to be a conservative performance limit for design. Yield stress is evaluated by standard uniaxial tension tests. For steel pipe, worst-case yield stress is biaxial. As an example, in steel pipe with 32 BURIED FLEXIBLE STEEL PIPE Figure 3-7. Von Mises Compound Yield. internal pressure, hoop tension stress is σx. Longitudinal stress, σz, causes biaxial stress. Among conditions for longitudinal stress is a longitudinal bend in a pipeline.
PIPE MECHANICS 29 Figure 3-4. Cross Section of Pipe at Springline Showing Crack Width, w, as a Function of Mortar Coating Thickness, t, and Change in Radius from Circular, r, to Minimum, rmin. S. = Neutral Surface. (The Neutral Surface Is Close to the Steel. ). Pressure in a pipe tends to reround the pipe, which leaves only hairline cracks that are uniformly distributed and that heal in a moist environment. Ring deﬂection is not the best basis for predicting crack width. Permanent deviations in radii of curvature are more reliable.
Buried Flexible Steel Pipe: Design and Structural Analysis by William R. Whidden, P.E.