Download PDF by Julian Sutton (auth.): Biology

By Julian Sutton (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1271271281

ISBN-13: 9781271271283

ISBN-10: 1349152013

ISBN-13: 9781349152018

ISBN-10: 1403905622

ISBN-13: 9781403905628

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The melen e form was more common In sooty. Indu8tll I eitles; In the countlyslde. typieal moths were more common. Could thls be the re ult of n urel aelectJon? Are melanle torms better camouflaged on sooty trees, whlle typIC81 forms are hard to spot on liehencoyered branches? Ir so. predatJon by blrds cou d be what dr1ves natural selectlon In thls • SeYerellines of evldence support thls ldea. • Old moth collectlons are praserved In museums. There are no records of melanle fonna before 1850, Pollution In cltJes became more aerloua around that time.

The mutant allele survtves, and some homozygotes are lnevitably bom. NATURAL SELECTION matical models of natural selection. 7 introduce this field. Natural selection aets on individuals and on genes Natural selection favours individuals which have a higher fitness. In the same way, it can be argued that natural selection favours the forms of genes which increase fitness. The individuals with that form of a gene have more offspring, so it becomes more common. Selection affects populations because populations are made up of individuals.

In the same way, herbicide-resistant populations of some weeds are appearing. Human activity can be a powerful stimulus tor evolutionary change. 4 It's obvlous .. Isn't It7 I IS easy to tell evolutionary stories, uslng natural selection to explaln an organism's features. However, not all storles are true. Here are two pitfalls. EV8rything ls an adaptation This need not be so. Some structures are there because they were favoured by selectlon In the past, even though they have no funetlon now. This Is called redundancy.

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Biology by Julian Sutton (auth.)

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