By Manar El-Chammas, Boris Murmann
This e-book describes ideas for time-interleaving a few analog-to-digital info converters to accomplish hard bandwidth specifications. Readers will enjoy the presentation of a low-power resolution that may be utilized in real items, whereas assuaging the time-varying sign artifacts that usually come up whilst enforcing any such method architecture.
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Extra resources for Background Calibration of Time-Interleaved Data Converters
This is iteratively implemented for each sub-ADC until i converges to zero for all i , which achieves the main goal of maximizing the SNR. 1 Calculating the Correlation As in Fig. 9, an additional ADC is used to calculate the crosscorrelation for each sub-ADC output. Thus, if N sub-ADCs are being interleaved, the overall ADC has a total of N C 1 sub-ADCs. The extra ADC does not contribute to the output of the time-interleaved ADC; it only feeds information to the digital calibration backend, which calculates the crosscorrelation between each sub-ADC and the calibration ADC.
64) by setting f3dB D ˛ fO. An interesting observation is that when ˛ D 1, or f3dB D fO, the bound on skew is the same for both the secondorder low pass filter and the sine wave input signal, even though the spectrum for the second-order low pass filter is still non-zero for frequencies larger than fO. A more complete comparison is possible by looking at the ratio ˇ D = O as a function of ˛, as in Fig. 8 1 Fig. 15 Comparison of standard deviation of skew for second-order low pass filter and sine wave, where ˛ is such that f3dB D ˛ fO and ˇ D = O For example, when f3dB D 0:5fO, ˇ D 2, which implies that standard analysis results in over-constraining the acceptable bound on the timing skew standard deviation by a factor of 2.
47), higher resolution ADCs result in smaller bounds on offset mismatch, as does a higher interleaving factor, although the ADC resolution has a much larger effect on the bound. For example, if P D 0:5 V 2 , B D 10, and N D 2, then o Ä 0:8 mV. 3 Quantitative Error Analysis 19 Note that the SNR due to gain mismatch is independent of the signal power, and only depends on the magnitude of the individual gains. 47) in that it is inversely proportional to both the ADC resolution B and the interleaving factor N .
Background Calibration of Time-Interleaved Data Converters by Manar El-Chammas, Boris Murmann