Download e-book for kindle: Annual Review of Psychology, vol 54 2003 by Susan T. Fiske, Daniel L. Schacter, Carolyn Zahn-Waxler

By Susan T. Fiske, Daniel L. Schacter, Carolyn Zahn-Waxler

ISBN-10: 0824302540

ISBN-13: 9780824302542

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As one heroin addict explained to a researcher studying craving, “No doc, craving is when you want it—want it so bad you can almost taste it . . but you ain’t sick . . sick is, well sick” (Childress et al. 1988). Another major problem for withdrawal theories is explaining why addicts so often relapse into drug-taking again even after they are free from withdrawal. After long periods of drug abstinence, the b-process should decay away. Yet elimination of withdrawal symptoms does not protect against future relapse, as the many recidivist graduates of detoxification programs can attest.

Rev. Psychol. 54:25-53. org by Ball State University on 01/05/09. For personal use only. OTHER ADDICTIONS? Are any of the factors we have discussed involved in other so-called addictions, such as addictions to food, sex, gambling, etc.? It is difficult to see how factors such as opponent withdrawal states or drug-induced cortical dysfunction would be involved in these other addictions. , but it is simply unknown whether such compulsive motivations involve any brain features at all similar to those associated with drug sensitization.

The opponent process theory makes testable predictions and describes the underlying positive and negative affective processes of addiction in graphic ways that allow the transition to addiction to be visualized (Figure 1). The opponent process theory posits that pleasant doses of a drug activate a dose-dependent a-process in brain reward circuits, which in turn triggers activation of a negative or opponent b-process. Usually the b-process serves to help restore homeostasis and bring brain states back to normal.

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Annual Review of Psychology, vol 54 2003 by Susan T. Fiske, Daniel L. Schacter, Carolyn Zahn-Waxler

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