By Sergio Sismondo
An advent to technology and expertise experiences, moment Edition displays the newest advances within the box whereas carrying on with to supply scholars with a highway map to the complicated interdisciplinary terrain of technology and expertise experiences.
- Distinctive in its recognition to either the underlying philosophical and sociological facets of technology and technology
- Explores center issues resembling realism and social building, discourse and rhetoric, objectivity, and the general public realizing of science
- Includes a variety of empirical stories and illustrative examples to explain the subjects discussed
- Now contains new fabric on political economies of clinical and technological wisdom, and democratizing technical decisions
- Other gains of the hot variation comprise stronger clarity, up-to-date references, bankruptcy reorganization, and extra fabric on drugs and technology
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Additional info for An Introduction to Science and Technology Studies
People with some of the identified valuable psychological traits and work habits in the list above are more likely to have a famous mentor, and to study at a prestigious graduate school. Once there, they are more likely to gain employment in a prestigious department. People in better departments may have access to better facilities and intellectual stimulation. Perhaps more importantly, they are more visible and therefore more likely to be cited. Within the social structure of 40 Stratification and Discrimination science, citation is a reward: people whose work is cited tend to continue publishing (Lightfield 1971) – in Randall Collins’s (1998) terms, citations are sources of emotional energy.
Wittgenstein’s problem is an extension of Hume’s problem of induction. A finite number of examples, with a finite amount of explanation, cannot constrain the next unexamined case. The problem of rule following becomes a usefully different problem because it is in the context of actions, and not just observations. There are competing interpretations of Wittgenstein’s writing on this problem. Some take him as posing a skeptical problem and giving a skeptical solution: people come to agreement about the meaning of rules because of prior socialization, and continuing social pressure (Kripke 1982).
On the structural-functionalist picture, norms exist to counteract local interests such as recognition and monetary gain, so that the larger goal – the growth of knowledge – is served. If Merton is right, we should expect to see violations of norms subject to sanctions. In a study of scientists working on the Apollo moon project, Ian Mitroff (1974) shows not only that scientists do not apply sanctions, but that they often respect what he calls counter-norms, which are rough opposites of Mertonian ones.
An Introduction to Science and Technology Studies by Sergio Sismondo
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