Download e-book for iPad: A Statistical Guide for the Ethically Perplexed by Lawrence Hubert, Howard Wainer

By Lawrence Hubert, Howard Wainer

ISBN-10: 1439873682

ISBN-13: 9781439873687

Booklet Date: September 25, 2012 | ISBN-10: 1439873682 | ISBN-13: 978-1439873687

For disciplines all for human overall healthiness, corresponding to medication, psychology, and legislations, records has to be utilized in accordance with criteria for moral perform. A Statistical consultant for the Ethically confused illustrates the correct use of probabilistic and statistical reasoning within the behavioral, social, and biomedical sciences. Designed to be consulted while studying formal statistical strategies, the textual content describes universal cases of either right and fake statistical and probabilistic reasoning.

Lauded for his or her contributions to statistical data, psychology, and psychometrics, the authors make statistical equipment suitable to readers’ day by day lives via together with genuine old occasions that show the function of records in reasoning and determination making. The ancient vignettes surround the English case of Sally Clark, breast melanoma screening, danger and playing, the Federal ideas of proof, "high-stakes" checking out, regulatory concerns in drugs, problems with observational stories, ethics in human experiments, healthiness facts, and masses extra. as well as those themes, seven U.S. excellent courtroom judgements mirror the effect of statistical and psychometric reasoning and interpretation/misinterpretation.

Exploring the intersection of ethics and facts, this entire consultant assists readers in turning into severe and moral shoppers and manufacturers of statistical reasoning and analyses. it's going to support them cause competently and use information in a moral manner.

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Extra resources for A Statistical Guide for the Ethically Perplexed

Example text

In many cases, the resulting misrepresentations and misinterpretation of these estimates lead to exaggerated expressions about the strength and implications of the DNA evidence. These exaggerations may have a significant impact on verdicts, possibly leading to convictions where acquittals might have been obtained. This Article identifies some of the subtle, but common, exaggerations that have occurred at trial, and classifies each in relation to the three questions that are suggested by the chain of reasoning sketched above: (1) Is a reported match a true match?

There may well be unknown genetic or environmental factors that predispose families to SIDS, so that a second case within the family becomes much more likely. The well-publicised figure of 1 in 73 million thus has no statistical basis. Its use cannot reasonably be justified as a ‘ballpark’ figure because the error involved is likely to be very large, and in one particular direction. The true frequency of families with two cases of SIDS may be very much less incriminating than the figure presented to the jury at trial.

10 It might be an obvious statement to make, but in our individual dealings with doctors and the medical establishment generally, it is important for all to understand the PPVs for whatever screening tests we now seem to be constantly subjected to, and thus, the number, (1 − PPV), referring to the false positives; that is, if a patient tests positive, what is the probability that “it” is not actually present. It is a simple task to plot PPV against P (A) from 0 to 1 for any given pair of sensitivity and specificity values.

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A Statistical Guide for the Ethically Perplexed by Lawrence Hubert, Howard Wainer

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