By Olaus Johan Murie
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Extra resources for A Field Guide to Animal Tracks
2003; Griffin et al. 2006). 6 and are mainly affected by activity, methodological measurement problems and gravitational forces in particular (Appen and Duncan 1986; Fillyaw et al. 1986; Figoni et al. 1988). Studies that have used peak moment data uncorrected for the effect of gravitational forces tend to demonstrate higher ratios and a significant increase with increasing angular velocity. Gravity corrected moment ratios tend to be approximately constant at different angular velocities (Appen and Duncan 1986; Fillyaw et al.
This is referred to as optimal loading. g. g. 5). It is important to note that it is the joint angular velocity that is controlled and kept constant, not the linear velocity of the active muscle group and the muscle fascicles (Hinson et al. 1979; IchinoseMuraoka et al. 2000). Most commercial isokinetic systems have accessories that allow testing of all the major joints of the upper and lower limbs and the back. Apart from isolated joint tests, workplace manual activities such as lifting and handling materials and equipment can be simulated on adapted dynamometers using dedicated attachments.
The force exerted by the interaction of actin and myosin depends on the number of the available cross-bridges, which is maximum near the resting length of the muscle. 1). , Baratta and Solomonow 1991). The effect of the linear velocity during muscle shortening or lengthening on the force output has been examined extensively 7 since the pioneering work of Hill (1938). 2). Furthermore, different types of muscle fibres have different force and velocity characteristics (Bottinelli et al. 1996; Widrick et al.
A Field Guide to Animal Tracks by Olaus Johan Murie